General Application: This is typically the basic application required to be admitted to the institution, including your demographic information, program of interest, and academic information. Nowadays most applications are submitted online. You will also need to send your transcripts.
Personal Statement or Essay: This portion of the application is where you really get to share your background and goals. Some programs will give you a series of specific questions to answer, while others will allow you to write a more general statement. This is your chance to brag to the review committee! Let them know more about your accomplishments, defining experiences, your goals, and so on.